Translations of the Qur'an, Surah 30:
AL-ROOM (THE ROMANS, THE BYZANTINES)
Total Verses: 60
Revealed At: MAKKA
YUSUFALI: A. L. M.
PICKTHAL: Alif. Lam. Mim.
SHAKIR: Alif Lam Mim.
YUSUFALI: The Roman Empire has been defeated-
PICKTHAL: The Romans have been defeated
SHAKIR: The Romans are vanquished,
YUSUFALI: In a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious-
PICKTHAL: In the nearer land, and they, after their defeat will be victorious
SHAKIR: In a near land, and they, after being vanquished, shall overcome,
YUSUFALI: Within a few years. With Allah is the Decision, in the past and in the Future: on that Day shall the Believers rejoice-
PICKTHAL: Within ten years - Allah's is the command in the former case and in the latter - and in that day believers will rejoice
SHAKIR: Within a few years. Allah's is the command before and after; and on that day the believers shall rejoice,
YUSUFALI: With the help of Allah. He helps whom He will, and He is exalted in might, most merciful.
PICKTHAL: In Allah's help to victory. He helpeth to victory whom He will. He is the Mighty, the Merciful.
SHAKIR: With the help of Allah; He helps whom He pleases; and He is the Mighty, the Merciful;
YUSUFALI: (It is) the promise of Allah. Never does Allah depart from His promise: but most men understand not.
PICKTHAL: It is a promise of Allah. Allah faileth not His promise, but most of mankind know not.
SHAKIR: (This is) Allah's promise! Allah will not fail His promise, but most people do not know.
YUSUFALI: They know but the outer (things) in the life of this world: but of the End of things they are heedless.
PICKTHAL: They know only some appearance of the life of the world, and are heedless of the Hereafter.
SHAKIR: They know the outward of this world's life, but of the hereafter they are absolutely heedless.
YUSUFALI: Do they not reflect in their own minds? Not but for just ends and for a term appointed, did Allah create the heavens and the earth, and all between them: yet are there truly many among men who deny the meeting with their Lord (at the Resurrection)!
PICKTHAL: Have they not pondered upon themselves? Allah created not the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, save with truth and for a destined end. But truly many of mankind are disbelievers in the meeting with their Lord.
SHAKIR: Do they not reflect within themselves: Allah did not create the heavens and the earth and what is between them two but with truth, and (for) an appointed term? And most surely most of the people are deniers of the meeting of their Lord.
YUSUFALI: Do they not travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those before them? They were superior to them in strength: they tilled the soil and populated it in greater numbers than these have done: there came to them their messengers with Clear (Signs). (Which they rejected, to their own destruction): It was not Allah Who wronged them, but they wronged their own souls.
PICKTHAL: Have they not travelled in the land and seen the nature of the consequence for those who were before them? They were stronger than these in power, and they dug the earth and built upon it more than these have built. Messengers of their own came unto them with clear proofs (of Allah's Sovereignty). Surely Allah wronged them not, but they did wrong themselves.
SHAKIR: Have they not travelled in the earth and seen how was the end of those before them? They were stronger than these in prowess, and dug up the earth, and built on it in greater abundance than these have built on it, and there came to them their messengers with clear arguments; so it was not beseeming for Allah that He should deal with them unjustly, but they dealt unjustly with their own souls.
YUSUFALI: In the long run evil in the extreme will be the End of those who do evil; for that they rejected the Signs of Allah, and held them up to ridicule.
PICKTHAL: Then evil was the consequence to those who dealt in evil, because they denied the revelations of Allah and made a mock of them.
SHAKIR: Then evil was the end of those who did evil, because they | rejected the communications of Allah and used to mock them.
YUSUFALI: It is Allah Who begins (the process of) creation; then repeats it; then shall ye be brought back to Him.
PICKTHAL: Allah produceth creation, then He reproduceth it, then unto Him ye will be returned.
SHAKIR: Allah originates the creation, then reproduces it, then to Him you shall be brought back.
YUSUFALI: On the Day that the Hour will be established, the guilty will be struck dumb with despair.
PICKTHAL: And in the day when the Hour riseth the unrighteous will despair.
SHAKIR: And at the time when the hour shall come the guilty shall be in despair.
YUSUFALI: No intercessor will they have among their "Partners" and they will (themselves) reject their "Partners".
PICKTHAL: There will be none to intercede for them of those whom they made equal with Allah. And they will reject their partners (whom they ascribed unto Him).
SHAKIR: And they shall not have any intercessors from among their gods they have joined with Allah, and they shall be deniers of their associate-gods.
YUSUFALI: On the Day that the Hour will be established,- that Day shall (all men) be sorted out.
PICKTHAL: In the day when the Hour cometh, in that day they will be sundered.
SHAKIR: And at the time when the hour shall come, at that time they shall become separated one from the other.
YUSUFALI: Then those who have believed and worked righteous deeds, shall be made happy in a Mead of Delight.
PICKTHAL: As for those who believed and did good works, they will be made happy in a Garden.
SHAKIR: Then as to those who believed and did good, they shall be made happy in a garden.
YUSUFALI: And those who have rejected Faith and falsely denied our Signs and the meeting of the Hereafter,- such shall be brought forth to Punishment.
PICKTHAL: But as for those who disbelieved and denied Our revelations, and denied the meeting of the Hereafter, such will be brought to doom.
SHAKIR: And as to those who disbelieved and rejected Our communications and the meeting of the hereafter, these shall be brought over to the chastisement.
YUSUFALI: So (give) glory to Allah, when ye reach eventide and when ye rise in the morning;
PICKTHAL: So glory be to Allah when ye enter the night and when ye enter the morning -
SHAKIR: Therefore glory be to Allah when you enter upon the time of the evening and when you enter upon the time of the morning.
YUSUFALI: Yea, to Him be praise, in the heavens and on earth; and in the late afternoon and when the day begins to decline.
PICKTHAL: Unto Him be praise in the heavens and the earth! - and at the sun's decline and in the noonday.
SHAKIR: And to Him belongs praise in the heavens and the earth, and at nightfall and when you are at midday.
YUSUFALI: It is He Who brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living, and Who gives life to the earth after it is dead: and thus shall ye be brought out (from the dead).
PICKTHAL: He bringeth forth the living from the dead, and He bringeth forth the dead from the living, and He reviveth the earth after her death. And even so will ye be brought forth.
SHAKIR: He brings forth the living from the dead and brings forth the dead from the living, and gives life to the earth after its death, and thus shall you be brought forth.
YUSUFALI: Among His Signs in this, that He created you from dust; and then,- behold, ye are men scattered (far and wide)!
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is this: He created you of dust, and behold you human beings, ranging widely!
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is that He created you from dust, then lo! you are mortals (who) scatter.
YUSUFALI: And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquillity with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is this: He created for you helpmeets from yourselves that ye might find rest in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who reflect.
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.
YUSUFALI: And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colours: verily in that are Signs for those who know.
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colours. Lo! herein indeed are portents for men of knowledge.
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the diversity of your tongues and colors; most surely there are signs in this for the learned.
YUSUFALI: And among His Signs is the sleep that ye take by night and by day, and the quest that ye (make for livelihood) out of His Bounty: verily in that are signs for those who hearken.
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is your slumber by night and by day, and your seeking of His bounty. Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who heed.
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is your sleeping and your seeking of His grace by night and (by) day; most surely there are signs in this for a people who would hear.
YUSUFALI: And among His Signs, He shows you the lightning, by way both of fear and of hope, and He sends down rain from the sky and with it gives life to the earth after it is dead: verily in that are Signs for those who are wise.
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is this: He showeth you the lightning for a fear and for a hope, and sendeth down water from the sky, and thereby quickeneth the earth after her death. Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who understand.
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is that He shows you the lightning for fear and for hope, and sends down water from the clouds then gives life therewith to the earth after its death; most surely there are signs in this for a people who understand
YUSUFALI: And among His Signs is this, that heaven and earth stand by His Command: then when He calls you, by a single call, from the earth, behold, ye (straightway) come forth.
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is this: The heavens and the earth stand fast by His command, and afterward, when He calleth you, lo! from the earth ye will emerge.
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is that the heaven and the earth subsist by His command, then when He calls you with a (single) call from out of the earth, lo! you come forth.
YUSUFALI: To Him belongs every being that is in the heavens and on earth: all are devoutly obedient to Him.
PICKTHAL: Unto Him belongeth whosoever is in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient unto Him.
SHAKIR: And His is whosoever is in the heavens and the earth; all are obedient to Him.
YUSUFALI: It is He Who begins (the process of) creation; then repeats it; and for Him it is most easy. To Him belongs the loftiest similitude (we can think of) in the heavens and the earth: for He is Exalted in Might, full of wisdom.
PICKTHAL: He it is Who produceth creation, then reproduceth it, and it is easier for Him. His is the Sublime Similitude in the heavens and the earth. He is the Mighty, the Wise.
SHAKIR: And He it is Who originates the creation, then reproduces it, and it is easy to Him; and His are the most exalted attributes in the heavens and the earth, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.
YUSUFALI: He does propound to you a similitude from your own (experience): do ye have partners among those whom your right hands possess, to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you? Do ye fear them as ye fear each other? Thus do we explain the Signs in detail to a people that understand.
PICKTHAL: He coineth for you a similitude of yourselves. Have ye, from among those whom your right hands possess, partners in the wealth We have bestowed upon you, equal with you in respect thereof, so that ye fear them as ye fear each other (that ye ascribe unto Us partners out of that which We created)? Thus We display the revelations for people who have sense.
SHAKIR: He sets forth to you a parable relating to yourselves: Have you among those whom your right hands possess partners in what We have given you for sustenance, so that with respect to it you are alike; you fear them as you fear each other? Thus do We make the communications distinct for a people who understand.
YUSUFALI: Nay, the wrong-doers (merely) follow their own lusts, being devoid of knowledge. But who will guide those whom Allah leaves astray? To them there will be no helpers.
PICKTHAL: Nay, but those who do wrong follow their own lusts without knowledge. Who is able to guide him whom Allah hath sent astray? For such there are no helpers.
SHAKIR: Nay! those who are unjust follow their low desires without any knowledge; so who can guide him whom Allah makes err? And they shall have no helpers.
YUSUFALI: So set thou thy face steadily and truly to the Faith: (establish) Allah's handiwork according to the pattern on which He has made mankind: no change (let there be) in the work (wrought) by Allah: that is the standard Religion: but most among mankind understand not.
PICKTHAL: So set thy purpose (O Muhammad) for religion as a man by nature upright - the nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created man. There is no altering (the laws of) Allah's creation. That is the right religion, but most men know not -
SHAKIR: Then set your face upright for religion in the right state-- the nature made by Allah in which He has made men; there is no altering of Allah's creation; that is the right religion, but most people do not know--
YUSUFALI: Turn ye back in repentance to Him, and fear Him: establish regular prayers, and be not ye among those who join gods with Allah,-
PICKTHAL: Turning unto Him (only); and be careful of your duty unto Him and establish worship, and be not of those who ascribe partners (unto Him);
SHAKIR: Turning to Him, and be careful of (your duty to) Him and keep up prayer and be not of the polytheists
YUSUFALI: Those who split up their Religion, and become (mere) Sects,- each party rejoicing in that which is with itself!
PICKTHAL: Of those who split up their religion and became schismatics, each sect exulting in its tenets.
SHAKIR: Of those who divided their religion and became seas every sect rejoicing in what they had with them
YUSUFALI: When trouble touches men, they cry to their Lord, turning back to Him in repentance: but when He gives them a taste of Mercy as from Himself, behold, some of them pay part-worship to other god's besides their Lord,-
PICKTHAL: And when harm toucheth men they cry unto their Lord, turning to Him in repentance; then, when they have tasted of His mercy, behold! some of them attribute partners to their Lord
SHAKIR: And when harm afflicts men, they call upon their Lord, turning to Him, then when He makes them taste of mercy from Him, lo! some of them begin to associate (others) with their Lord,
YUSUFALI: (As if) to show their ingratitude for the (favours) We have bestowed on them! Then enjoy (your brief day); but soon will ye know (your folly).
PICKTHAL: So as to disbelieve in that which We have given them. (Unto such it is said): Enjoy yourselves awhile, but ye will come to know.
SHAKIR: So as to be ungrateful for what We have given them; but enjoy yourselves (for a while), for you shall soon come to know.
YUSUFALI: Or have We sent down authority to them, which points out to them the things to which they pay part-worship?
PICKTHAL: Or have We revealed unto them any warrant which speaketh of that which they associate with Him?
SHAKIR: Or, have We sent down upon them an authority so that it speaks of that which they associate with Him?
YUSUFALI: When We give men a taste of Mercy, they exult thereat: and when some evil afflicts them because of what their (own) hands have sent forth, behold, they are in despair!
PICKTHAL: And when We cause mankind to taste of mercy they rejoice therein; but if an evil thing befall them as the consequence of their own deeds, lo! they are in despair!
SHAKIR: And when We make people taste of mercy they rejoice in it, and if an evil befall them for what their hands have already wrought, lo! they are in despair.
YUSUFALI: See they not that Allah enlarges the provision and restricts it, to whomsoever He pleases? Verily in that are Signs for those who believe.
PICKTHAL: See they not that Allah enlargeth the provision for whom He will, and straiteneth (it for whom He will). Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who believe.
SHAKIR: Do they not see that Allah makes ample provision for whom He pleases, or straitens? Most surely there are signs in this for a people who believe.
YUSUFALI: So give what is due to kindred, the needy, and the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek the Countenance, of Allah, and it is they who will prosper.
PICKTHAL: So give to the kinsman his due, and to the needy, and to the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek Allah's Countenance. And such are they who are successful.
SHAKIR: Then give to the near of kin his due, and to the needy and the wayfarer; this is best for those who desire Allah's pleasure, and these it is who are successful.
YUSUFALI: That which ye lay out for increase through the property of (other) people, will have no increase with Allah: but that which ye lay out for charity, seeking the Countenance of Allah, (will increase): it is these who will get a recompense multiplied.
PICKTHAL: That which ye give in usury in order that it may increase on (other) people's property hath no increase with Allah; but that which ye give in charity, seeking Allah's Countenance, hath increase manifold.
SHAKIR: And whatever you lay out as usury, so that it may increase in the property of men, it shall not increase with Allah; and whatever you give in charity, desiring Allah's pleasure-- it is these (persons) that shall get manifold.
YUSUFALI: It is Allah Who has created you: further, He has provided for your sustenance; then He will cause you to die; and again He will give you life. Are there any of your (false) "Partners" who can do any single one of these things? Glory to Him! and high is He above the partners they attribute (to him)!
PICKTHAL: Allah is He Who created you and then sustained you, then causeth you to die, then giveth life to you again. Is there any of your (so-called) partners (of Allah) that doeth aught of that? Praised and Exalted be He above what they associate (with Him)!
SHAKIR: Allah is He Who created you, then gave you sustenance, then He causes you to die, then brings you to life. Is there any of your associate-gods who does aught of it? Glory be to Him, and exalted be He above what they associate (with Him).
YUSUFALI: Mischief has appeared on land and sea because of (the meed) that the hands of men have earned, that (Allah) may give them a taste of some of their deeds: in order that they may turn back (from Evil).
PICKTHAL: Corruption doth appear on land and sea because of (the evil) which men's hands have done, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return.
SHAKIR: Corruption has appeared in the land and the sea on account of what the hands of men have wrought, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, so that they may return.
YUSUFALI: Say: "Travel through the earth and see what was the end of those before (you): Most of them worshipped others besides Allah."
PICKTHAL: Say (O Muhammad, to the disbelievers): Travel in the land, and see the nature of the consequence for those who were before you! Most of them were idolaters.
SHAKIR: Say: Travel in the land, then see how was the end of those before; most of them were polytheists.
YUSUFALI: But set thou thy face to the right Religion before there come from Allah the Day which there is no chance of averting: on that Day shall men be divided (in two).
PICKTHAL: So set thy purpose resolutely for the right religion, before the inevitable day cometh from Allah. On that day mankind will be sundered-
SHAKIR: Then turn thy face straight to the right religion before there come from Allah the day which cannot be averted; on that day they shall become separated.
YUSUFALI: Those who reject Faith will suffer from that rejection: and those who work righteousness will spread their couch (of repose) for themselves (in heaven):
PICKTHAL: Whoso disbelieveth must (then) bear the consequences of his disbelief, while those who do right make provision for themselves -
SHAKIR: Whoever disbelieves, he shall be responsible for his disbelief, and whoever does good, they prepare (good) for their own souls,
YUSUFALI: That He may reward those who believe and work righteous deeds, out of his Bounty. For He loves not those who reject Faith.
PICKTHAL: That He may reward out of His bounty those who believe and do good works. Lo! He loveth not the disbelievers (in His guidance).
SHAKIR: That He may reward those who believe and do good out of His grace; surely He does not love the unbelievers.
YUSUFALI: Among His Signs is this, that He sends the Winds, as heralds of Glad Tidings, giving you a taste of His (Grace and) Mercy,- that the ships may sail (majestically) by His Command and that ye may seek of His Bounty: in order that ye may be grateful.
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is this: He sendeth herald winds to make you taste His mercy, and that the ships may sail at His command, and that ye may seek his favour, and that haply ye may be thankful.
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is that He sends forth the winds bearing good news, and that He may make your taste of His mercy, and that the ships may run by His command, and that you may seek of His grace, and that you may be grateful.
YUSUFALI: We did indeed send, before thee, messengers to their (respective) peoples, and they came to them with Clear Signs: then, to those who transgressed, We meted out Retribution: and it was due from Us to aid those who believed.
PICKTHAL: Verily We sent before thee (Muhammad) messengers to their own folk. Then we took vengeance upon those who were guilty (in regard to them). To help believers is ever incumbent upon Us.
SHAKIR: And certainly We sent before you messengers to their people, so they came to them with clear arguments, then We gave the punishment to those who were guilty; and helping the believers is ever incumbent on Us.
YUSUFALI: It is Allah Who sends the Winds, and they raise the Clouds: then does He spread them in the sky as He wills, and break them into fragments, until thou seest rain-drops issue from the midst thereof: then when He has made them reach such of his servants as He wills behold, they do rejoice!-
PICKTHAL: Allah is He Who sendeth the winds so that they raise clouds, and spreadeth them along the sky as pleaseth Him, and causeth them to break and thou seest the rain downpouring from within them. And when He maketh it to fall on whom He will of His bondmen, lo! they rejoice;
SHAKIR: Allah is he Who sends forth the winds so they raise a cloud, then He spreads it forth in the sky as He pleases, and He breaks it up so that you see the rain coming forth from inside it; then when He causes it to fall upon whom He pleases of His servants, lo! they are joyful
YUSUFALI: Even though, before they received (the rain) - just before this - they were dumb with despair!
PICKTHAL: Though before that, even before it was sent down upon them, they were in despair.
SHAKIR: Though they were before this, before it was sent down upon them, confounded in sure despair.
YUSUFALI: Then contemplate (O man!) the memorials of Allah's Mercy!- how He gives life to the earth after its death: verily the same will give life to the men who are dead: for He has power over all things.
PICKTHAL: Look, therefore, at the prints of Allah's mercy (in creation): how He quickeneth the earth after her death. Lo! He verily is the Quickener of the Dead, and He is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: Look then at the signs of Allah's mercy, how He gives life to the earth after its death, most surely He will raise the dead to life; and He has power over all things.
YUSUFALI: And if We (but) send a Wind from which they see (their tilth) turn yellow,- behold, they become, thereafter, Ungrateful (Unbelievers)!
PICKTHAL: And if We sent a wind and they beheld it yellow, they verily would still continue in their disbelief.
SHAKIR: And if We send a wind and they see it to be yellow, they would after that certainly continue to disbelieve
YUSUFALI: So verily thou canst not make the dead to hear, nor canst thou make the deaf to hear the call, when they show their backs and turn away.
PICKTHAL: For verily thou (Muhammad) canst not make the dead to hear, nor canst thou make the deaf to hear the call when they have turned to flee.
SHAKIR: For surely you cannot, make the dead to hear and you cannot make the deaf to hear the call, when they turn back and
YUSUFALI: Nor canst thou lead back the blind from their straying: only those wilt thou make to hear, who believe in Our signs and submit (their wills in Islam).
PICKTHAL: Nor canst thou guide the blind out of their error. Thou canst make none to hear save those who believe in Our revelations so that they surrender (unto Him).
SHAKIR: Nor can you lead away the blind out of their error. You cannot make to hear any but those who believe in Our communications so they shall submit.
YUSUFALI: It is Allah Who created you in a state of (helpless) weakness, then gave (you) strength after weakness, then, after strength, gave (you weakness and a hoary head: He creates as He wills, and it is He Who has all knowledge and power.
PICKTHAL: Allah is He Who shaped you out of weakness, then appointed after weakness strength, then, after strength, appointed weakness and grey hair. He createth what He will. He is the Knower, the Mighty.
SHAKIR: Allah is He Who created you from a state of weakness then He gave strength after weakness, then ordained weakness and hoary hair after strength; He creates what He pleases, and He is the Knowing, the Powerful.
YUSUFALI: On the Day that the Hour (of Reckoning) will be established, the transgressors will swear that they tarried not but an hour: thus were they used to being deluded!
PICKTHAL: And on the day when the Hour riseth the guilty will vow that they did tarry but an hour - thus were they ever deceived.
SHAKIR: And at the time when the hour shall come, the guilty shall swear (that) they did not tarry but an hour; thus are they ever turned away.
YUSUFALI: But those endued with knowledge and faith will say: "Indeed ye did tarry, within Allah's Decree, to the Day of Resurrection, and this is the Day of Resurrection: but ye - ye were not aware!"
PICKTHAL: But those to whom knowledge and faith are given will say: The truth is, ye have tarried, by Allah's decree, until the Day of Resurrection. This is the Day of Resurrection, but ye used not to know.
SHAKIR: And those who are given knowledge and faith will say: Certainly you tarried according to the ordinance of Allah till the day of resurrection, so this is the day of resurrection, but you did not know.
YUSUFALI: So on that Day no excuse of theirs will avail the transgressors, nor will they be invited (then) to seek grace (by repentance).
PICKTHAL: In that day their excuses will not profit those who did injustice, nor will they be allowed to make amends.
SHAKIR: But on that day their excuse shall not profit those who were unjust, nor shall they be regarded with goodwill.
YUSUFALI: verily We have propounded for men, in this Qur'an every kind of Parable: But if thou bring to them any Sign, the Unbelievers are sure to say, "Ye do nothing but talk vanities."
PICKTHAL: Verily We have coined for mankind in this Qur'an all kinds of similitudes; and indeed if thou camest unto them with a miracle, those who disbelieve would verily exclaim: Ye are but tricksters!
SHAKIR: And certainly We have set forth for men every kind of example in this Quran; and if you should bring them a communication, those who disbelieve would certainly say: You are naught but false claimants.
YUSUFALI: Thus does Allah seal up the hearts of those who understand not.
PICKTHAL: Thus doth Allah seal the hearts of those who know not.
SHAKIR: Thus does Allah set a seal on the hearts of those who do not know.
YUSUFALI: So patiently persevere: for verily the promise of Allah is true: nor let those shake thy firmness, who have (themselves) no certainty of faith.
PICKTHAL: So have patience (O Muhammad)! Allah's promise is the very truth, and let not those who have no certainty make thee impatient.
SHAKIR: Therefore be patient; surely the promise of Allah is true and let not those who have no certainty hold you in light estimation.